ABV Changes When You Add Fruit

Most people believe that when you add fruit to fermenting wort, the ABV of the resulting beer will dramatically increase due to the amount of sugar added with the fruit. Well, that is probably not going to be what happens. The problem with above logic is that they are considering the amount of sugar added with the fruit but they are disregarding the amount of water in the fruit.

So how do you calculate the ABV change when you add fruit to wort?

You will need 4 pieces of information:

1. The weight of the fruit you are adding.
This weight should exclude pits, seeds, stems, etc. Of course this will no be a perfect weight because there may still be things like pulp that cannot be removed but generally the weight is very low compared to the total weight of the fruit added.

2. The Brix of the fruit. The easiest way to get this is with a refractometer but if you don’t have one of those then you may be able to get the info off of the label of the container. Or as a last resort fine the percentage of sugar in the fruit via a Google search. This will probably be pretty close but an actual measurement is definitely better.

3. The OG of the beer you are adding the fruit to. This is the ORIGINAL GRAVITY and NOT the current gravity.

4. The weight of the beer. Granted, you probably didn’t weigh the beer when you pitched the yeast but you can still get the figure if you know how many gallons of wort you started with.
The weight of the beer can be calculated this way:
OG * Volume * weight of a gallon of water (8.36 pounds)
So if I started with 5.5 gallons of 1.055 wort then the weight would be 1.055 * 5.5 *8.36 = 54.8 pounds

Once you gather the above information you use this formula to calculate the ABV change:

(Weight of the beer from #4 * Brix/Plato of the beer + weight of the fruit addition * Brix/Pato of the fruit / Weight of the beer + weight of the fruit addition)

To keep you from having to look up the Brix if you don’t have a refractometer just use the following table

Specific
Gravity Brix
0.990 0.00
0.991 0.00
0.992 0.00
0.993 0.00
0.994 0.00
0.995 0.00
0.996 0.00
0.997 0.00
0.998 0.00
0.999 0.00
1.000 0.00
1.001 0.26
1.002 0.51
1.003 0.77
1.004 1.03
1.005 1.28
1.006 1.54
1.007 1.80
1.008 2.05
1.009 2.31
1.010 2.56
1.011 2.81
1.012 3.07
1.013 3.32
1.014 3.57
1.015 3.82
1.016 4.08
1.017 4.33
1.018 4.58
1.019 4.83
1.020 5.08
1.021 5.33
1.022 5.57
1.023 5.82
1.024 6.07
1.025 6.32
1.026 6.57
1.027 6.81
1.028 7.06
1.029 7.30
1.030 7.55
1.031 7.80
1.032 8.04
1.033 8.28
1.034 8.53
1.035 8.77
1.036 9.01
1.037 9.26
1.038 9.50
1.039 9.74
1.040 9.98
1.041 10.22
1.042 10.46
1.043 10.70
1.044 10.94
1.045 11.18
1.046 11.42
1.047 11.66
1.048 11.90
1.049 12.14
1.050 12.37
1.051 12.61
1.052 12.85
1.053 13.08
1.054 13.32
1.055 13.55
1.056 13.79
1.057 14.02
1.058 14.26
1.059 14.49
1.060 14.72
1.061 14.96
1.062 15.19
1.063 15.42
1.064 15.65
1.065 15.88
1.066 16.11
1.067 16.34
1.068 16.57
1.069 16.80
1.070 17.03
1.071 17.26
1.072 17.49
1.073 17.72
1.074 17.95
1.075 18.18
1.076 18.40
1.077 18.63
1.078 18.86
1.079 19.08
1.080 19.31
1.081 19.53
1.082 19.76
1.083 19.98
1.084 20.21
1.085 20.43
1.086 20.65
1.087 20.88
1.088 21.10
1.089 21.32
1.090 21.54
1.091 21.77
1.092 21.99
1.093 22.21
1.094 22.43
1.095 22.65
1.096 22.87
1.097 23.09
1.098 23.31
1.099 23.53
1.100 23.75
1.101 23.96
1.102 24.18
1.103 24.40
1.104 24.62
1.105 24.83
1.106 25.05
1.107 25.27
1.108 25.48
1.109 25.70
1.110 25.91
1.111 26.13
1.112 26.34
1.113 26.56
1.114 26.77
1.115 26.98
1.116 27.20
1.117 27.41
1.118 27.62
1.119 27.83
1.120 28.05
1.121 28.26
1.122 28.47
1.123 28.68
1.124 28.89
1.125 29.10
1.126 29.31
1.127 29.52
1.128 29.73
1.129 29.94
1.130 30.15

The Brix of various of fruits.

Apple 13.3
Apricot 14.3
Black currant 15.0
Blackberry 10.0
Black raspberry 11.1
Blueberry 14.1
Boysenberry 10.0
Carob 40.0
Cherry 14.3
Cranberry 10.5
Date 18.5
Dewberry 10.0
Elderberry 11.0
Fig 18.2
Gooseberry 8.3
Grapefruit 10.2
Guava 7.7
Lemon 8.9
Lime 10.0
Loganberry 10.5
Mango 17.0
Naranjilla 10.5
Orange 11.8
Papaya 10.2
Passion Fruit 15.3
Peach 11.8
Pear 15.4
Pineapple 14.3
Plum 14.3
Pomegranate 18.2
Prune 18.5
Quince 13.3
Raisin 18.5
Raspberry 10.5
Red currant 10.5
Strawberry 8.0
Tangerine 11.5

Example:

Lets say I started with 5.5 gallons of 1.055 wort (13.55 brix using the above chart). I am adding 10 pounds of raspberries (10.5 brix) to the wort (using the other above chart).

1. Weight of the fruit = 10 pounds
2. Brix of the fruit = 10.5
3. OG of the wort = 1.055
4. Weight of the beer = 48.5 pounds (1.055 * 5.5 * 8.36)

So the formula works out to: ((48.5 * 13.55) + (10 * 10.5))/ (48.5 + 10)

(657.175 + 105) / 58.5 = 13.03 Brix.

13.03 Brix is ~1.053 so adding the fruit LOWERED the OG by .0002 points.

So what happens if we use the above numbers but start with an OG of 1.050?

1. Weight of the fruit = 10 pounds
2. Brix of the fruit = 10.5
3. OG of the wort = 1.050
4. Weight of the beer = 48.28 pounds (1.050 * 5.5 * 8.36)

So the formula works out to: ((48.28 * 12.37) + (10 * 10.5))/ (48.5 + 10)

(597.22 + 105) / 58.5 = 12.0 Brix which is about 1.048. So it lowered the OG by .007 points

So what happend if we add a fruit with a lot of sugar in it like figs? Side note, I have me a beer using a fig addition and it’s awesome!

Same as the first example but the Brix of the fruit is 18.2.

1. Weight of the fruit = 10 pounds
2. Brix of the fruit = 18.5
3. OG of the wort = 1.055, Brix is 13.55
4. Weight of the beer = 48.5 pounds (1.055 * 5.5 * 8.36)

So the formula works out to: ((48.5 * 13.55) + (10 * 18.5))/ (48.5 + 10)

(657.175 + 185) / 58.5 = 14.4 Brix or about 1.059 OG. So the figs increased the OG about 4 points.

As a general rule the addition of fruit will not have a significant affect on the gravity of the wort so the ABV is usually not that much different with or without the fruit addition.

American Pale Ale

American Pale Ale

SRM4
Type: All Grain
Batch Size: 5.50 gal
Boil Size: 7.58 gal
Boil Time: 60 min
End of Boil Vol: 5.98 gal
Final Bottling Vol: 5.00 gal
Fermentation: Ale, Two Stage
Brewer: Ray Smith
Equipment: Large Electric Kettle (~15 gallons)
Efficiency: 72.00 %
Est Mash Efficiency: 75.3 %
Ingredients
Amt Name Type # %/IBU
4.98 mg Caclium Chloride LIQUID 13 percent (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 1
4.98 g Gypsum (Calcium Sulfate) (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 2
3.57 ml 20% Phosphoric Acid (Mash 0.0 mins) Water Agent 3
3.57 mg Citric Acid Powder (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 4
9 lbs 1.2 oz Pale Malt (2 Row) US (2.0 SRM) Grain 5 81.8 %
8.7 oz Wheat, Flaked (1.6 SRM) Grain 6 4.9 %
8.4 oz Caramel/Crystal Malt – 10L (10.0 SRM) Grain 7 4.8 %
5.9 oz Vienna Malt (Briess) (3.5 SRM) Grain 8 3.3 %
5.9 oz Wheat – Red Malt (Briess) (2.3 SRM) Grain 9 3.3 %
3.4 oz Carapils (Briess) (1.5 SRM) Grain 10 1.9 %
0.0 oz Pale Malt (2 Row) US (2.0 SRM) Grain 11 0.0 %
0.45 oz Magnum [12.20 %] – Boil 60.0 min Hop 12 19.8 IBUs
12.65 mg Caclium Chloride LIQUID in BOIL (Boil 60.0 mins) Other 13
0.99 g Epsom Salt (MgSO4) (Boil 60.0 mins) Water Agent 14
0.28 tsp Irish Moss (Boil 10.0 mins) Fining 15
0.25 tsp Yeast Nutrient (Boil 10.0 mins) Other 16
0.00 mg Immersion Chiller (Boil 10.0 mins) Other 17
0.70 oz Amarillo [9.20 %] – Steep/Whirlpool 30.0 min Hop 18 8.9 IBUs
0.70 oz Cascade [5.50 %] – Steep/Whirlpool 30.0 min Hop 19 5.3 IBUs
0.70 oz Centennial [10.00 %] – Steep/Whirlpool 30.0 min Hop 20 9.7 IBUs
0.04 tsp Fermcap (Boil -1.0 mins) Other 21
1.0 pkg GY054 Vermont Yeast (Gigayeast #GY054) Yeast 22
2.50 oz Centennial [10.00 %] – Dry Hop 5.0 Days Hop 23 0.0 IBUs
2.00 oz Amarillo [9.20 %] – Dry Hop 5.0 Days Hop 24 0.0 IBUs

Gravity, Alcohol Content and Color

Est Original Gravity: 1.053 SG
Est Final Gravity: 1.011 SG
Estimated Alcohol by Vol: 5.5 %
Bitterness: 43.8 IBUs
Est Color: 4.3 SRM
Calories: 176.4 kcal/12oz

Mash Profile

Mash Name: 154 degrees, BIAB, large kettle
Total Grain Weight: 11 lbs 1.5 oz
Grain Temperature: 72.0 F
Tun Temperature: 72.0 F
Target Mash PH: 5.20
Mash Acid Addition:
Sparge Acid Addition:
Mash Steps
Name Description Step Temperature Step Time
Mash Step Add 33.25 qt of water and heat to 154.0 F over 4 min 154.0 F 60 min
Mash Out Heat to 168.0 F over 4 min 168.0 F 5 min

Carbonation and Storage

Carbonation Type: Keg
Pressure/Weight: 12.54 PSI
Keg/Bottling Temperature: 45.0 F
Fermentation: Ale, Two Stage
Volumes of CO2: 2.3
Carbonation Used: Keg with 12.54 PSI
Age for: 30.00 days
Storage Temperature: 65.0 F

Notes

Experimental water Profile goal (trying to achieve a soft pillowy mouthfeel):
Ca: 99ppm
Mg: 5ppm
Na: 8ppm
SO4: 112pm
Cl: 131ppm

Raised the mash temp from 150 in the origianl recipe to 154.
Changed the yeast to GY054 instead of the original yeast. Hoping for a nice soft, pillowy mouthfeel with a nice citrus flavor and aroma.

Changing up how I’m adding the water additions. I am adding just enough minerals to get the Calcium to a minimum of 40-50 in the mash and adding the acids to get the pH down to 5.3.

The remainder of the water additions will be added to the kettle (preboil).

As a sanity check, supposedly the kettle pH should be in the 5.2-5.4 range (I think).

Using a 50/50 ratio of Phosphoric acid to Citric acid to reduce the mash Ph. Hoping the citric acid will add some citrus flavor without bitterness.

Estimated pH is 5.30 with the water additions.

At flameout, allow temp to drop to 190 before adding whirlpool hops, keep temps in the 180-190 range for the entire 30 minutes for the IBU’s to be extracted. Since the wort is not boiling we are not losing any of the oils in the hops. Should get a lot of aroma without much bittering. So a smoother flavor.

dry hop for 5 days at end of fermentation.

Abita Turbodog Clone

Abita Turbodog Clone

SRM27
Type: All Grain
Batch Size: 5.25 gal
Boil Size: 7.92 gal
Boil Time: 90 min
End of Boil Vol: 6.36 gal
Final Bottling Vol: 5.00 gal
Fermentation: Ale, Three Stage

Brewer: Ray Smith

Equipment: My 13.5″ turkey fryer kettle
Efficiency: 70.00 %
Est Mash Efficiency: 81.6 %

Ingredients
Amt Name Type # %/IBU
8.76 gal Abita Turbodog Water 1
4.04 g Calcium Chloride (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 2
2.88 g Epsom Salt (MgSO4) (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 3
2.29 g Baking Soda (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 4
1.87 g Chalk (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 5
0.90 g Gypsum (Calcium Sulfate) (Mash 60.0 mins) Water Agent 6
8 lbs Pale Malt (2 Row) US (2.0 SRM) Grain 7 78.1 %
1 lbs 5.0 oz Caramel/Crystal Malt -120L (120.0 SRM) Grain 8 12.8 %
10.0 oz Chocolate Malt (350.0 SRM) Grain 9 6.1 %
4.0 oz Carapils (Briess) (1.5 SRM) Grain 10 2.4 %
1.0 oz Black (Patent) Malt (500.0 SRM) Grain 11 0.6 %
1.50 oz Fuggles [4.50 %] – Boil 90.0 min Hop 12 25.1 IBUs
0.26 tsp Irish Moss (Boil 10.0 mins) Fining 13
1.25 oz Goldings, East Kent [5.00 %] – Boil 5.0 min Hop 14 4.3 IBUs
1.90 oz Willamette [4.00 %] – Steep/Whirlpool 15.0 min Hop 15 6.5 IBUs
0.04 tsp Fermcap (Boil -1.0 mins) Other 16
1.0 pkg London Ale III (Wyeast Labs #1318) [124.21 ml] Yeast 17

Gravity, Alcohol Content and Color

Est Original Gravity: 1.048 SG
Est Final Gravity: 1.012 SG
Estimated Alcohol by Vol: 4.7 %
Bitterness: 35.9 IBUs
Est Color: 27.3 SRM

Calories: 137.8 kcal/12oz

Mash Profile

Mash Name: Single Infusion, Full Body, No Mash Out
Total Grain Weight: 10 lbs 4.0 oz
Grain Temperature: 60.0 F
Tun Temperature: 50.0 F
Target Mash PH: 5.20
Mash Steps
Name Description Step Temperature Step Time
Mash In Add 35.04 qt of water at 156.9 F 152.0 F 45 min

Carbonation and Storage

Carbonation Type: Keg
Pressure/Weight: 12.54 PSI
Keg/Bottling Temperature: 45.0 F
Fermentation: Ale, Three Stage
Volumes of CO2: 2.3
Carbonation Used: Keg with 12.54 PSI
Age for: 30.00 days
Storage Temperature: 65.0 F

 

Abita Amber

Abita Amber

SRM8
Type: All Grain
Batch Size: 5.25 gal
Boil Size: 7.40 gal
Boil Time: 60 min
End of Boil Vol: 6.36 gal
Final Bottling Vol: 5.00 gal
Fermentation: Munich Lager Yeast (2308)
Brewer: Ray Smith
Equipment: My 13.5″ turkey fryer kettle
Efficiency: 70.00 %
Est Mash Efficiency: 81.6 %
Ingredients
Amt Name Type # %/IBU
7 lbs 8.0 oz Pale Malt (2 Row) US (2.0 SRM) Grain 1 87.6 %
8.0 oz Caramel/Crystal Malt – 40L (40.0 SRM) Grain 2 5.8 %
4.0 oz Munich Malt (9.0 SRM) Grain 3 2.9 %
4.0 oz Victory Malt (25.0 SRM) Grain 4 2.9 %
1.0 oz Chocolate Malt (350.0 SRM) Grain 5 0.7 %
0.35 oz Chinook [12.00 %] – Boil 60.0 min Hop 6 15.0 IBUs
1.00 tsp Irish Moss (Boil 15.0 mins) Fining 7
0.25 oz Crystal [3.50 %] – Boil 15.0 min Hop 8 1.6 IBUs
0.26 tsp Irish Moss (Boil 10.0 mins) Fining 9
0.00 mg Immersion Chiller (Boil 10.0 mins) Other 10
0.25 oz Perle [8.00 %] – Boil 5.0 min Hop 11 1.4 IBUs
1.0 pkg Munich Lager (Wyeast Labs #2308) [124.21 ml] Yeast 12

Gravity, Alcohol Content and Color

Est Original Gravity: 1.041 SG
Est Final Gravity: 1.010 SG
Estimated Alcohol by Vol: 4.1 %
Bitterness: 18.0 IBUs
Est Color: 7.6 SRM

Calories: 34.4 kcal/12oz

Mash Profile

Mash Name: Single Infusion, Medium Body, No Mash Out
Sparge Water: -7.28 gal
Sparge Temperature: 168.0 FTotal Grain Weight: 8 lbs 9.0 oz
Grain Temperature: 72.0 F
Tun Temperature: 72.0 F
Target Mash PH: 5.20
Mash Steps
Name Description Step Temperature Step Time
Mash In Add 31.46 qt of water at 156.0 F 152.0 F 60 min

Mash Notes: Simple single infusion mash for use with most modern well modified grains (about 95% of the time).

Carbonation and Storage

Carbonation Type: Keg
Pressure/Weight: 12.54 PSI
Keg/Bottling Temperature: 45.0 F
Fermentation: Munich Lager Yeast (2308)
Volumes of CO2: 2.3
Carbonation Used: Keg with 12.54 PSI
Age for: 28.00 days
Storage Temperature: 35.0 F

Water Additions Database

Name Calcium Magnesium Sodium Sulfate Chloride
Row 2, Column 1 Row 2, Column 2

Calcium Magnesium Sodium Sulfate Chloride Carbonate Hardness Bicarbonate HCO3 Alkalinity
Ideal Alt 38 0 28 90 45 0 26.8 0 0
Ideal Bitter 90 10 28 240 38 0 70.2 0 0
Ideal Bock 60 0 50 45 75 60 42.9 60 49
Ideal Brown Ale 23 0 50 53 75 0 16.1 0 0
Ideal Burton Pale Ale 111 18 35 337 32 38 89.9 37.82 31
Ideal Dark Lager 83 0 50 53 75 90 58.9 90 74
Ideal Dark Lager 73 13 52 125 80 63 59.8 129.32 106
Ideal Dopplebock 78 0 55 45 85 90 55.4 90 74
Ideal Dortmunder 75 0 53 175 80 0 53.6 0 0
Ideal English Ale 52 10 6.2 65 9.6 63 43.0 129.32 106
Ideal Light Lager 45 0 28 108 45 0 32.1 0 0
Ideal Light Lager 21 5.2 18 21 16 51 18.1 84.18 69
Ideal Maerzen 45 0 35 105 53 0 32.1 0 0
Ideal Medium Lager 74 5.2 10 21 16 111 55.9 225.7 185
Ideal Mild 38 10 35 133 55 0 33.0 0 0
Ideal Mild/Dark Lager 75 12 35 120 100 100 60.6 100 82
Ideal Munich Dark 63 0 10 28 13 60 44.6 60 49
Ideal Pale Ale 125 20 25 363 40 0 101.1 0 0
Ideal Pale Ale 110 18 17 350 50 0 89.2 0 0
Ideal Pale Ale 110 18 17 350 50 57 89.2 57 47
Ideal Pale Ale 126 19 18 281 48 66 101.2 66 54
Ideal Pale Lager 1 0.5 1.05 5 0 0 1.0 0 0
Ideal Pilsner 7 5 2 6 5 15 7.9 15 12
Ideal Porter 65 0 40 60 60 60 46.4 60 49
Ideal Scottish 25 0 16 60 24 0 17.9 0 0
Ideal Stout 50 12 60 46 175 0 42.8 0 0
Ideal Stout (Dry) 90 10 15 73 24 130 70.2 130 107
Ideal Stout (Sweet) 65 0 15 45 24 70 46.4 70 57
Ideal Weizen 23 0 10 53 15 0 16.1 0 0